Systematic Catalog of Culicidae

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titillans (Walker)

1848:5 (F; Culex)
Type-loc: Belem, Para, Brazil (BM)

Additional References:
Lane 1939:89 (distr.).
Perez Vigueras 1948:298 (M*, F*, P*, L*).
Pratt 1953:15 (F*, P*).
Carpenter and LaCasse 1955:107 (M*, F*, L*).
Ronderos and Bachmann 1963:61 (M*, P*, L*, E*).
Belkin, Heinemann, and Page 1970:103 (M*, F*, P*, L*).
Belkin, Schick, and Heinemann 1971:17 (type-loc. info,).
Heinemann and Belkin 1977C:529 (distr.).
Rossi and Marinez 2003: 472 (distr., Uruguay).
Berti et al. 2014: (distr, Venezuela).

Distribution:
Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States; contiguous lower 48, Uruguay, Venezuela

Bionomics:
After hatching, the larvae attach themselves to the submerged roots of aquatic plants from which they obtain oxygen. The pupae also remain attached to the roots of the plants until time for emergence of the adults. Water lettuce (Pistia) and water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) are claimed to be the principal host plant. The females are troublesome out-of-doors biters and are known to fly several miles from marshes, ponds, and lakes where their immature stages occur. (Carpenter and LaCasse 1955:108)

Medical Importance:
The virus causing Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) has been recovered from wild-caught Mansonia titillans in Trinidad and it is believed that the species may have been an important vector of this disease during an epidemic in Trinidad in 1942-1943. According to Belding, this species is known to be a vector of filariasis. (Carpenter and LaCasse 1955:108)